Adoption of policy instruments against sprawl in Switzerland: A statistical analysis of the years 1970-2014
Kaiser, N., 2015: Adoption of policy instruments against sprawl in Switzerland: A statistical analysis of the years 1970-2014. Master thesis.
Kaiser, N. 2015: Adoption of policy instruments against sprawl in Switzerland: A statistical analysis of the years 1970-2014. Masterarbeit geleitet von Prof. Felix Kienast (WSL) und Sophie Rudolf (WSL). D-USYS, ETH Zürich
In Switzerland settlement areas have more than doubled within the last 65 years and sprawl has increased strongly. Although settlement areas with low population density and spacious surroundings are highly desired by people, it is widely accepted that the corresponding high land consumption leads to sprawling cities with many negative societal, economic and ecological consequences. Consequently different policy instruments have been adopted in Swiss municipalities to tackle this undesired development. However, monitoring data for Switzerland show that sprawl is still increasing at a high rate.
In the present Master thesis data of a survey undertaken within a national research project was used to analyze the adoption of policy instruments in Swiss municipalities since 1970. First, a descriptive presentation of the temporal development of policy instrument adoption is given. Subsequently municipalities were grouped based on similar temporal adoptions of the instruments, and factors influencing the introduction of instruments were analyzed with statistical methods. Finally, an analysis of the effectiveness of the selected policies on urban sprawl is presented. Results show that policy instruments against sprawl are increasingly adopted in Swiss municipalities, the majority in the last 15 years. Five groups of municipalities could be distinguished based on the temporal adoption of instruments. They range from the early implementers to the late bloomers. Factors identified to positively influence the adoption of policy instruments include (1) the administrative capacity of the municipality and (2) the growth of the settlement area. Factors hindering the adoption are (1) strong growth of the sprawl index (WUP) in the municipality and (2) the share of people older 65 years. Analysis of the effectiveness of measures show that adoption of three single instruments have a significant effect on sprawl. The lag effect between adoption and effect differs depending on the instrument.