Carpinus betulus L.

Betulaceae


Morphology

P 3-10 m

Ecology

hill and mountain

Chorology

European

Xylem

Distinct rings, diffuse porous, vessels 30-70 ┬Ám in diameter, vessels in radial multiples, simple perforations, with thion helical thickenings, fibers thin to thick walled, fibers with small pits, parenchyma apotracheal-diffuse in uniseriate tangential rows, aggregate rays, rays homocellular, and heterocellular with one row of square marginal cells, rays1-3 seriate, with aggregate rays, with large prismatic crystals.

Xylem-Code

See annex

Phloem

Uniserate layers of sieve-tubes an parenchyma cells, sclereids in cortext and phloem in the continuation of aggregate rays, with crystal druses and prismatic crystals. Dense phellem with regularly arranged rectangular cells.

Explanations

For explanations please see the Feature Characteristics.

Cross section
   
Tangential section
 
Radial section
  
Bark
  

© 2005 WSL - F. Schweingruber, W. Landolt, last update 18.11.2010