TL, 1 - 3 m
hill and mountain zone, medium site
Biannual root collar: Distinct rings, semi-ring porous, vessels solitary and in short radial multiples, vessel diameter 20 ¿ 50µm, vessel frequency 100-200 mm2, simple perforations, vestured pits, fibers thin to thick walled, paratracheal parenchyma, rayless. Rays with 1-2 cells. Annual liana-shoot: Only one ring, ring with large vessels, mostly siphonostele with separated vascular bundles, rayless.
Phloem uniform, The inner cortex consists on a ring of thick walled fibers and the outer cortex on thin walled parenchyma cells.
For explanations please see the Feature Characteristics.
© 2005 WSL - F. Schweingruber, W. Landolt, last update 18.11.2010