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Plot design

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Each LWF plot usually consists of two 1-ha halfplots A and B, in which different investigation areas are delineated:


Two square 0.25-ha subplots (a and b) are marked in each halfplot. On these subplots, we carry out the annual Sanasilva surveys (22) and measure the height and diameter at breast height (21) of all trees with a diameter of at least 5 cm.

Intensive Monitoring plot (IM)

The 43x43 m Intensive Monitoring plot (IM), which consists of 16 10x10 m quadrats, is where we conduct most of the intensive monitoring. Some collectors are installed on these quadrats, while litterfall and throughfall collectors are also installed in a so-called “mirror plot” close to the IM plot, in order to extend the sampled area (see below, Sensors and collectors). Such a quadrat is exemplarily represented on the LWF test, training and demonstration site.

Partial quadrats

Each partial quadrat is divided into four plots:

Circular vegetation plot

In the center of the LWF plot lies the center of the circular vegetation plot (30 - 500 m2), in which we carry out additional ground vegetation surveys (34).

Sensors and collectors

On the LWF demonstration site, there is only one copy of each sensor or collector, whereas several copies are usually installed on LWF sites to cover the spatial variability. For example, 16 rain collectors (3), 4 snow collectors (4) and 10 litterfall collectors (25) are installed in the IM plot and outside it.