Skelly JM, Innes JL, Sanz MJ (1999) Observation and confirmation of ozone symptoms of native plant species of Switzerland and Southern Spain. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 116: 227-234.


ozone, above-ground part of trees, Methods: open-top chamber, open-top chamber


Tropospheric ozone is considered as the major pollutant of concern to the health and productivity of forests in eastern United States and has more recently become of increasing concern within the forests of southern Europe. Recent observations have clearly demonstrated foliar injury symptoms to be occurring on many tree and native plant species within remote forested areas. Several plant genera (and a few species within genera) found in both the forests of Switzerland and the southern coastal region of Spain exhibit field symptoms typical of ambient ozone exposures. Ozone exposures for many species have been conducted under controlled CSTR conditions and within open-top chambers within the study areas. Results have thus far confirmed that the ozone-like foliar symptoms as observed under natural forest and open grown conditions for many native tree, shrub, and herbaceous species to be due to ambient ozone exposure.

LWF Classification

Network: LWF, Category: ISI,