Lorenz M, Nagel H-D, Granke O, Kraft P (2008) Critical loads and their exceedances at intensive forest monitoring sites in Europe. Environmental Pollution, 155 (3): 426-435. [10.1016/j.envpol.2008.02.002]


Europe Forest health Nitrogen Sulphur Critical loads


Intensive forest monitoring by means of harmonised methods has been conducted in Europe for more than a decade. Risks of atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur deposition are assessed by means of calculations of critical loads and their exceedances. In the present study throughfall and bulk deposition of nitrate (N-NO3), ammonium (N-NH4) and sulphate (S-SO4) show marked spatial patterns and temporal trends. In the period of observation (1999-2004), sulphate deposition on intensive monitoring plots decreased by about one quarter. This is in line with the reduction of S deposition by 70% since 1981 in Europe as a result of successful air pollution control politics under the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). However, sulphate and especially nitrate and ammonium deposition were found to still exceed critical loads at many forest sites, indicating a continued need for further implementation of air pollution abatement strategies.

LWF Classification

Network: LWF, Category: ISI,