Calatayud V, Schaub M (2013) Chapter 19 - Methods for Measuring Gaseous air Pollutants in Forests. In: M. Ferretti, R. Fischer (ed.) Forest Monitoring - Methods for terrestrial investigations in Europe with an overview of North America and Asia, Developments in Environmental Science, Elsevier, , 12: 375-384. [10.1016/B978-0-08-098222-9.00019-4]


Air pollutants, Passive samplers, Ozone, Ammonia, Critical levels


Gaseous air pollutants can have an impact on forest ecosystems inducing visible injury in sensitive species and potentially affecting tree growth, health, and species composition. While several methods exist, passive (diffusive) samplers have been widely used for measuring air pollutants in forest areas, representing a simple, cost-effective method that does not require power supply. In Europe, passive sampling is the principal method used within the intensive monitoring plots of ICP Forests since 2000 and has been proven to provide results comparable to those obtained by conventional monitors. Guidelines for using passive samplers in forest ecosystems and examples of results are provided.

LWF Classification

Network: LWF, Category: peer-reviewed,